CS650 Reflectómetro contenido agua en suelo, temperatura, conductividad (SDI-12)
Innovadora
Mayor precisión en suelos con alta conductividad eléctrica
meteorología aplicaciones agua aplicaciones energía aplicaciones flujo gas y turbulencia aplicaciones infraestructuras aplicaciones suelo aplicaciones

Resumen

El CS650 es un sensor inteligente multiparamétrico que usa innovadoras técnicas para monitorizar el contenido de agua volumétrico, conductividad eléctrica y temperatura del suelo. La señal de salida es digital SDI-12, compatible con la mayoría de nuestros dataloggers.

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Ventajas y características

  • Medidas de contenido de agua más precisas en suelos con EC de hasta 3dSm-1 sin necesidad de una calibración específica del suelo
  • Un mayor volumen de la muestra reduce el error
  • Medida corregida para efectos de la textura del suelo y conductividad eléctrica
  • Estima el contenido de agua del suelo para una amplia gama de suelos minerales
  • Sensor versátil—mide la permitividad dieléctrica, conductividad eléctrica (EC), y temperatura del suelo

Imágenes

Descripción detallada

The CS650 consists of two 30-cm-long stainless steel rods connected to a printed circuit board. The circuit board is encapsulated in epoxy and a shielded cable is attached to the circuit board for datalogger connection.

The CS650 measures propagation time, signal attenuation, and temperature. Dielectric permittivity, volumetric water content, and bulk electrical conductivity are then derived from these raw values.

Measured signal attenuation is used to correct for the loss effect on reflection detection and thus propagation time measurement. This loss-effect correction allows accurate water content measurements in soils with bulk EC ≤3 dS m-1 without performing a soil specific calibration.

Soil bulk electrical conductivity is also calculated from the attenuation measurement. A thermistor in thermal contact with a probe rod near the epoxy surface measures temperature. Horizontal installation of the sensor provides accurate soil temperature measurement at the same depth as the water content. Temperature measurement in other orientations will be that of the region near the rod entrance into the epoxy body.

 

Especificaciones

Measurements Made Soil electrical conductivity (EC), relative dielectric permittivity, volumetric water content (VWC), soil temperature
Required Equipment Measurement system
Soil Suitability Long rods with large sensing volume (> 6 L) are suitable for soils with low to moderate electrical conductivity.
Rods Not replaceable
Sensors Not interchangeable
Sensing Volume 7800 cm3 (~7.5 cm radius around each probe rod and 4.5 cm beyond the end of the rods)
Electromagnetic CE compliant
Meets EN61326 requirements for protection against electrostatic discharge and surge.
Operating Temperature Range -50° to +70°C
Sensor Output SDI-12; serial RS-232
Warm-up Time 3 s
Measurement Time 3 ms to measure; 600 ms to complete SDI-12 command
Power Supply Requirements 6 to 18 Vdc (Must be able to supply 45 mA @ 12 Vdc.)
Maximum Cable Length 610 m (2000 ft) combined length for up to 25 sensors connected to the same data logger control port
Rod Spacing 32 mm (1.3 in.)
Ingress Protection Rating IP68
Rod Diameter 3.2 mm (0.13 in.)
Rod Length 300 mm (11.8 in.)
Probe Head Dimensions 85 x 63 x 18 mm (3.3 x 2.5 x 0.7 in.)
Cable Weight 35 g per m (0.38 oz per ft)
Probe Weight 280 g (9.9 oz) without cable

Current Drain

Active (3 ms)
  • 45 mA typical (@ 12 Vdc)
  • 80 mA (@ 6 Vdc)
  • 35 mA (@ 18 Vdc)
Quiescent 135 µA typical (@ 12 Vdc)

Electrical Conductivity

Range for Solution EC 0 to 3 dS/m
Range for Bulk EC 0 to 3 dS/m
Accuracy ±(5% of reading + 0.05 dS/m)
Precision 0.5% of BEC

Relative Dielectric Permittivity

Range 1 to 81
Accuracy
  • ±(2% of reading + 0.6) from 1 to 40 for solution EC ≤ 3 dS/m
  • ±1.4 (from 40 to 81 for solution EC ≤1 dS/m)
Precision < 0.02

Volumetric Water Content

Range 0 to 100% (with M4 command)
Water Content Accuracy
  • ±1% (with soil-specific calibration)
  • ±3% (typical with factory VWC model) where solution EC < 3 dS/m
Precision < 0.05%

Soil Temperature

Range -50° to +70°C
Resolution 0.001°C
Accuracy
  • ±0.1°C (for typical soil temperatures [0 to 40°C] when probe body is buried in soil)
  • ±0.5°C (for full temperature range)
Precision ±0.02°C

Compatibilidad

Nota: lo siguiente muestra información de compatibilidad notable. No es una lista de todos los productos compatibles.

Dataloggers

Producto Compatible Nota
CR1000 (retired)
CR1000X
CR200X (retired)
CR216X (retired)
CR300
CR3000 (retired)
CR310
CR350
CR5000 (retired)
CR6
CR800
CR850
CR9000X (retired)

Miscelaneo

Producto Compatible Nota
21X (retired)
CR10 (retired)
CR10X (retired)
CR23X (retired)
CR500 (retired)
CR510 (retired)
CR9000 (retired)

Información de compatibilidad adicional

RF Considerations

External RF Sources

External RF sources can affect the probe’s operation. Therefore, the probe should be located away from significant sources of RF such as ac power lines and motors.

Interprobe Interference

Multiple CS650 sensors can be installed within 4 inches of each other when using the standard datalogger SDI-12 “M” command. The SDI-12 “M” command allows only one probe to be enabled at a time.

Installation Tool

The CS650G makes inserting soil-water sensors easier in dense or rocky soils. This tool can be hammered into the soil with force that might damage the sensor if the CS650G were not used. It makes pilot holes into which the rods of the sensors can then be inserted.

Datalogger Considerations

Compatible Contemporary Dataloggers

CR200(X) Series CR800/CR850 CR1000 CR3000 CR9000X

Compatible Retired Dataloggers

CR500 CR510 CR10 CR10X 21X CR23X CR9000 CR5000 CR7X

Preguntas frecuentes

Número de FAQs relacionadas con CS650: 54

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  1. No. The equation used to determine volumetric water content in the firmware for the CS650 and the CS655 is the Topp et al. (1980) equation, which works for a wide range of mineral soils but not for organic soils. In organic soils, the standard equations in the firmware will overestimate water content.

    When using a CS650 or a CS655 in organic soil, it is best to perform a soil-specific calibration. For details on performing a soil-specific calibration, refer to “The Water Content Reflectometer Method for Measuring Volumetric Water Content” section in the CS650/CS655 manual. A linear or quadratic equation that relates period average to volumetric water content will work well.

  2. The bulk electrical conductivity (EC) measurement is made along the sensor rods, and it is an average reading of EC over that distance at whatever depth the rods are placed.

  3. Damage to the CS650 or the CS655 electronics or rods cannot be repaired because these components are potted in epoxy. Cable damage, on the other hand, may possibly be repaired. For more information, refer to the Repair and Calibration page.

  4. The CS650-series sensors have the same rugged epoxy and stainless-steel rods that have been used for water content reflectometers since the CS615-L model was introduced in 1995. There are CS615-L and CS616 sensors in many locations that have been in continuous use for more than ten years with no reported problems. If a CS650 or CS655 remains undamaged by external forces such as lightning, harsh chemicals, or animal actions, the sensor is expected to continue working for decades. 

  5. Because the reported volumetric water content reading is an average taken along the entire length of the rods, the sensor should be fully inserted into the soil. Otherwise, the reading will be the average of both the air and the soil, which will lead to an underestimation of water content. If the sensor rods are too long to go all the way into the soil, Campbell Scientific recommends inserting the rods at an angle until they are fully covered by soil.

  6. Mine tailings are highly corrosive and have high electrical conductivity. Some customers have successfully used water content reflectometers, such as the CS650 or the CS655, to measure water content in mine tailings by coating the sensor rods with heat-shrink tubing. This affects the sensor output, and a soil-specific calibration must be performed. Care must be taken during installation to avoid damaging the heat-shrink tubing and exposing the sensor’s rods.  In addition, covering the sensor’s rods invalidates the bulk electrical conductivity reading. Unless the temperature reading provided by the CS650 or the CS655 is necessary, a better option may be to use a CS616 with coated rods.

  7. The electrical conductivity (EC) of sea water is approximately 48 dS/m. The CS650 can measure permittivity in water with EC between 0 and 3 dS/m. EC readings become extremely unstable at conductivities higher than 3 dS/m and are reported as NAN or 9999999. Because EC is part of the permittivity equation, an EC reading of NAN leads to a permittivity reading of NAN as well. Thus, the CS650 cannot provide good readings in sea water.

    With regard to sea ice, the electrical conductivity drops significantly when sea water freezes and the permittivity changes from approximately 88 down to approximately 4, as the water changes from a liquid to a solid state. With both EC and permittivity falling to levels that are within the CS650 measurement range, the sensor is expected to give valid readings in sea ice. The sensor is rugged and can withstand the cold temperatures. However, as the ice melts, there will be a point at which the electrical conductivity becomes too high to acquire a valid reading for either permittivity or electrical conductivity.

  8. If information is available on soil texture, organic matter content, and electrical conductivity (EC) from soil surveys or lab testing of the soil, it should be possible to tell if the soil conditions fall outside the range of operation of the sensor. Without this information, an educated guess can be made based on soil texture, climate, and management:

    • Soil that is coarse textured (such as sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam) works well with a CS650 if the EC is low.
    • If the soil is located in an arid or semiarid region, it may have high EC.
    • If the soil is frequently fertilized or irrigated with water that has higher EC, it may have high EC.
    • If the climate provides enough rain to flush accumulated salts below the root zone, the EC is expected to be low and suitable for a CS650.

    When in doubt about soil texture and electrical conductivity, Campbell Scientific recommends using a CS655 because of the sensor’s wider range of operation in electrically conductive soils, as compared with the CS650.

  9. The volumetric water content reading is the average water content over the length of the sensor’s rods.

  10. Probably not. The principle that makes these sensors work is that liquid water has a dielectric permittivity of close to 80, while soil solid particles have a dielectric permittivity of approximately 3 to 6. Because the permittivity of water is over an order of magnitude higher than that of soil solids, water content has a significant impact on the overall bulk dielectric permittivity of the soil. When the soil becomes very dry, that impact is minimized, and it becomes difficult for the sensor to detect small amounts of water. In air dry soil, there is residual water that does not respond to an electric field in the same way as it does when there is enough water to flow among soil pores. Residual water content can range from approximately 0.03 in coarse soils to approximately 0.25 in clay. In the natural environment, water contents below 0.05 indicate that the soil is as dry as it is likely to get. Very small changes in water content will likely cause a change in the sensor period average and permittivity readings, but, to interpret those changes, a very careful calibration using temperature compensation would need to be performed.  

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